The 7 wonders of the ancient world are monuments built by man during antiquity and are considered unique for both beauty and architecture. Unfortunately, there is only one of them that still exists: the Pyramid of Giza, in Egypt. The others only remain stories or some engravings.
In fact, this is an unofficial classification that became famous over time and ended up staying. But there is no consensus even on who would have written this list of the wonders of the ancient world. Some claim that it was Herodotus, a famous historian who lived between 484 and 425 BC, others that it was Callimachus of Cyrene, who would have drawn up the first list in the 3rd century BC, or even, but less credited, Philo of Byzantium, an engineer who would have drawn up the list in 130 BC.
As mentioned, the only one of the 7 wonders that still exists is the Pyramid of Giza. The largest of the 80 pyramids that exist in Egypt and was created between the years 2589 to 2566 BC
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are yet another wonder of the ancient world, but they may not even have existed. According to the stories, they say that the gardens were on the banks of the Euphrates River, in the region of Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), and were built on top of a large building with about 5 floors. According to Philo of Byzantium and Diodorus Siculus, writers of the classical era, the splendor of the building was constituted by the fact that the Mesopotamian region is extremely deserted, so building a garden with trees under which you could walk was truly a wonderful feat.
The Temple of Artemis is located in Ephesus (present-day Turkey) and was built in 550 BC by King Croesus of Lydia. The temple was all supported by wonderful marble columns in the Ionic style with structures in high relief and capitals with rosettes, but its greatest splendor was the statue of the goddess Artemis, built in gold, silver, ebony and other stones the statue attracted visitors from all over the world. all regions that carried replicas of the statue as a souvenir. On 21, 356 BC, Herostratus, a Greek citizen, set fire to the temple to become immortal.
Years later Alexander the Great offered funds to rebuild the temple of Artemis, as long as his name was inscribed there. The proposal was refused and years later the temple was finally rebuilt even bigger and more beautiful. However, in 262 AD the temple was again destoned. This time the Gothic invaders plundered the temple which, in the 5th century AD, had the rest of its marble removed to rebuild the city. Finally, after a succession of earthquakes, what was left of the temple collapsed and its ruins were discovered in 1860 by archaeologist John Turtle Cayster who took one of its columns to the British Museum.
Built by the Greek artist Phidias, the statue of Zeus in the Temple of Olympia took eight years to complete and was truly fantastic. The temple where the statue was built contained gigantic bronze doors that opened to reveal the marvelous 64-meter-tall sculpture. Unfortunately this wonder was also destroyed. Around 462 or 475 AD a fire destroyed the statue of Zeus that it had reached, to be depicted on coins in the city of Olympia. Means by which we can today have an idea of what it was like.
The Colossus of Rhodes was a massive statue of the Greek god Helios, built by the sculptor Carés of Lindos in the 3rd century BC to commemorate the Macedonians' refusal to invade the island of Rhodes. No one knows for sure what the statue looked like, but some stories say that it would represent the god Helios holding a torch in one of his hands and that his face would have been sculpted after the face of Alexander the Great. In 225 BC an earthquake toppled the statue which destroyed several houses as it fell. The island's inhabitants would have tried to rebuild it, but an oracle would have advised to leave it as it was, and that's what they did. Then, in 653 AD the Arabs who invaded the island sold the colossus for scrap.
The next wonder is the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (in the region of the modern city of Bodrum, Turkey), a mausoleum built by Artemis who had the temple built to bury her husband, King Mausolus, King of Caria, from which the word is derived. mausoleum. Artemis died two years after her husband, and therefore did not see the finished temple. For the task she had chosen the architect Pitis, who built the statue on top of the temple and four more sculptors who would decorate each side of the temple: Scopas, Briaxis, Leochares and Timothy. The temple was destroyed in the 15th century when earthquakes gradually caused it to collapse. And in 1494 its marble columns were turned into mortar to reinforce the castle of the Knights of Saint John of Malta in Bodrum.
The last of the 7 wonders of antiquity is the Lighthouse of Alexandria. It was built around AD 285 at the behest of Ptolemy on the island of Pharos (or Pharos) off the coast of Egypt. It is not known exactly who built it, but Sostrates of Cnidus, who some say was an architect, played an important role in the construction of the lighthouse. The work, all made of mortar and marble, had three floors on which stood a statue that it is not known whether it was of Zeus or Poseidon. The first floor was a quadrilateral, the second an octagon and the last a cylinder, totaling 137 meters in height. During the day the lighthouse guided travelers using a mirror that reflected the sunlight, and at night a bonfire was used. After the 13th century and after withstanding 22 earthquakes and unsuccessful attempts to restore it, the lighthouse collapsed and ended up at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea.
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